The results suggest that screening people with hemophilia for diabetes and high blood pressure could have benefits.
A study published in the journal hemophilia in July 2022 found that diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increase the risk of high blood pressure in men with hemophilia. This is important in the hemophilia population because both diabetes and high blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain). People with hemophilia are already at higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage, which can be life-threatening even in people without hemophilia.
Researchers from the University of California, San Diego conducted a retrospective study in which they examined the clinical records of 691 men with hemophilia, ages 18 to 79, who were examined at hemophilia treatment centers across North America between 2003 and 2014. They were compared to races. and age-matched males in the general population using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and an outpatient clinic at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Diego.
Each cohort was divided into two groups – one group without diabetes, HIV or hepatitis C infection and another group with diabetes or a history of HIV or hepatitis C infection.
The researchers found that high blood pressure was more common in people with hemophilia than in the general population and veterans (50% versus 25.5% and 41.2%). Diabetes was less prevalent in the hemophilia group than in the other two groups (7.8% versus 12.6% and 13.7%).
When comparing all men without diabetes or HIV or hepatitis infection, the researchers found that the group with hemophilia had the highest rate of hypertension (37%), followed by the veterans group (34%) and the general population (20% ). . In the groups with diabetes or a history of viral infection, 57% of men with hemophilia had hypertension, while 77% of veterans and 53% of NHANES participants had hypertension.
Although men with hemophilia had the lowest rate of diabetes among the three groups, the researchers discovered that diabetes had the greatest impact on increasing the risk of hypertension. They found that people with hemophilia who had diabetes or a history of HIV had a higher risk of high blood pressure than hemophiliacs who either had no viral infection or were only infected with hepatitis C. The same association was not found in the groups without hemophilia.
The authors commented that these results should highlight the need for early screening for hypertension and diabetes in people with hemophilia to adequately control these conditions and prevent associated complications and mortality. This is particularly important given that new and developing hemophilia treatments are reducing the life expectancy of people with hemophilia.